Emma by Jane Austen

emmaEng

I know (or at least vaguely remember) I always mention this when I write about Jane Austen, but I will mention it again that my favorite Austen novel is always the one I’m re-reading. So I enjoyed this again, a lot, and right now this is my favorite, even if my latest re-reading wasn’t the result of my usual spring-summer desire for English romanticism (which is, by the way, not really romantic at all – and I probably like it exactly because it’s not romantic) but mostly the result of the fact that Virginia Woolf in A Room of One’s Own wrote about Austen in a most flattering way.

Looking at Austen from Woolf’s perspective, I realized that she really didn’t try or want to please anyone, which is great. Her style, her irony, her cool-headed sensitivity, the way she describes her characters through their style and mannerisms, and the way she criticizes are all very much her, filtered through her own experiences, way of thinking and imagination – and the amount of criticism or compassion she has towards people doesn’t depend on whether Austen is a man or a woman, or whether the character she describes is male or female.

I read somewhere once how Austen never wrote scenes where only men were present, after all, she couldn’t have known how men behave, what they talk about when they are in an all-male company. I must have been a bit surprised when I first read this but now I tend to consider it another sign of Austen’s genius, and I think about how fantastically smart she must have been, and how great it is that she never presumed to be a know-it-all, and didn’t attempt to write about things she hadn’t seen with her own eyes. And I think, too, that she could draw extremely precise conclusions from the things she had seen.

Of course: this is a true Austen novel, where the main goal is marriage, and where everyone lives happily ever after when the goal is reached. But I see her idea of conjugal happiness less and less romantic and fairy-tale-like, even if all her novels end with saying something like how the couple then went ahead to spend their lives in the most perfect harmony imaginable. Yes, the text might end like this, but the implication that this is not a static state is very much there.

Here and now I was especially struck by how much she emphasizes the importance of happy couples complementing each other, and how much her idea of happiness in marriage is based on the assumption or foundation that man and woman will have a good influence on each other.

Perhaps Austen was an archetypal romantic after all. But no matter in what I light I see her, I always feel that what and how she writes – is real, ever since I first read her work in my teens.

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Middlemarch by George Eliot

middlemarch

It’s nice to read a novel like this from time to time.

A novel that’s – old-fashioned.
A novel that’s – slow.
A novel where the author deeply cares about the characters and where you will deeply care about the characters, too.

At least I feel I must – reading 800+ pages without getting emotionally involved is impossible for me, so it’s also good that this here is not a postmodern novel where the author demands that the reader keep a distance from the characters and the events.

So yes, this is an old-fashioned novel, with dozens of characters and a whole lot of subplots and story-lines, with good guys and bad guys – but not good and bad in a black-and-white sense. If anything, the characters here represent several shades of gray, as regards the diversity of human nature and the millions of possible motivations.

The main character is – relatively surprisingly – a woman. Dorothea Casaubon (née Brooke) is an intelligent, benevolent, headstrong, energetic young woman who is lucky enough to be able to follow her desires because… – there are several reasons.

Because she has an independent income.
Because her friends and family always stand by her in the end, even if they initially object to some of her plans and ideas.
Because she’s brave and strong enough to defy the way things should be according to everyone else – multiple times, without fail, without damaging compromises.

Dorothea is quite an intriguing character: an independent woman who prefers to manage her estate on her own instead of trusting it to the care of a strong man, and who at the same time screws things up multiple times because she cannot assess and admit to what she really wants and how she could be happy. Still, slowly – very slowly – she learns from her mistakes.

Besides Dorothea, there are many other remarkable characters and story-lines, too: starting from the young doctor new to town (whose innovative plans don’t quite turn out the way he expects) through the young gentleman itching for an active life full of excitement to the hot-headed young poet who is willing to fight for his desires as much as it takes. (Pro quiz: whose heart and hand will our young poet win in the end? Yes. Exactly! But this is how it should be and the fact that the end is foreseeable doesn’t make it any weaker. And anyway, Eliot doesn’t waste too many words on things that are bound to happen. This is not a romantic novel.)

Besides the many individual stories, we also get a sense of the important events unsettling the English countryside in the 19th century. I admit this historical-political story-line didn’t really touch me – some 15 years I must have studied the history of the Whigs and Tories to some extent but that knowledge has safely been buried since, so the political fights and intricacies of the novel left me somewhat baffled. What I did get was that regular country people weren’t exactly keen on such novelties as the introduction of the railway.

But in the end, my ignorance didn’t stop my enjoyment because Eliot’s greatest strength is that through the fate of her characters she can say a whole lot about how it was, how it could have been to live in that era in the English countryside.